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Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs): A looming threat or the future of finance?

By Romeo F.
21 Jul 2023
10 min read

Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs) represent a new form of digital currency issued and regulated by central banks. Unlike traditional fiat currencies, CBDCs are entirely digital, allowing for seamless transactions and interactions within a country's financial system.

CBDCs are being explored and developed by several countries worldwide as a response to the increasing prominence of cryptocurrencies and the potential benefits they offer in terms of efficiency and financial inclusion.

You can think of CBDCs as a centralized version of cryptocurrencies, where instead of a decentralized blockchain, certain governments will be in control of the system.

In recent years, cryptocurrencies have emerged as a disruptive force in the global financial landscape. Led by pioneers like Bitcoin and Ethereum, these decentralized digital assets have garnered immense popularity, drawing the attention of investors, businesses, and even governments.

The promise of borderless transactions, enhanced security, and financial autonomy has attracted a growing number of individuals and institutions to participate in the crypto market.

Cryptocurrencies have shown resilience, surviving early skepticism and regulatory challenges to establish themselves as an alternative financial system outside the purview of traditional banking institutions. The decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies governed through consensus mechanisms, has provided users with a sense of empowerment and autonomy over their funds, contributing to the appeal of digital assets across various demographics.

As central banks explore the development of their own digital currencies, the rise of CBDCs presents both opportunities and concerns for the crypto industry. While proponents argue that CBDCs can modernize financial systems and enhance monetary policy, there are growing fears that they could be wielded as a governmental weapon to exert control, increase surveillance, and potentially stifle competition from private cryptocurrencies.

This article will help you understand the potential negative implications of CBDCs as a governmental weapon in the crypto industry.

Understanding CBDCs

A high level CBDC work demonstration
Credit: NGRAVE

Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs) can be defined as digital representations of a country's fiat currency, issued and regulated by the country’s central bank. Unlike physical cash or traditional bank deposits, CBDCs exist in a digital form, accessible through digital wallets or accounts provided by the central bank.

CBDCs are designed to operate on centralized, permissioned blockchain networks or other secure digital platforms.

CBDCs come in two main forms: retail CBDCs and wholesale CBDCs.

Retail CBDCs are available to the general public, offering individuals and businesses the ability to hold and transact with digital currency directly.

Wholesale CBDCs, on the other hand, are primarily used for interbank settlements and are typically not available to the public.


The development of CBDCs is motivated by a combination of factors. First and foremost, central banks seek to enhance the efficiency and security of their payment systems by leveraging blockchain technology and digitization. CBDCs offer the potential for faster and more cost-effective transactions, reducing the need for intermediaries and streamlining cross-border payments.

Moreover, CBDCs are seen as a tool to promote financial inclusion, providing unbanked and underbanked populations with access to formal financial services. By offering a digital currency that is easily accessible through smartphones and other devices, central banks aim to bridge the gap between traditional banking systems and the digital economy.

Another motivation behind CBDCs is to counter the rising popularity of private cryptocurrencies. As decentralized cryptocurrencies gain traction, central banks seek to maintain their role as issuers of currency and ensure the stability of their financial systems.

CBDCs, being backed by central banks, offer a degree of so-called traditional stability that can be attractive to individuals wary about the viability of cryptocurrencies.

Several countries have either expressed interest or already started developing CBDC programs across the globe including China, the US, England, India, France, Canada, etc.

However, the opposition is equally if not stronger against CBDCs globally. We will get into the specifics later in the article, for now, let's focus on the technicalities.

Key Features of CBDCs

CBDCs have three key features:

Lack of Privacy

CBDCs raise concerns about the level of privacy they afford users. While some central banks claim to provide a degree of anonymity in transactions, they also emphasize the need for traceability and anti-money laundering measures. Striking a balance between privacy and regulatory oversight remains a challenge in the design of CBDCs.


Unlike cryptocurrencies that operate on decentralized networks, CBDCs are fully controlled by central banks. This level of control grants governments and central authorities significant influence over monetary policy and the flow of funds within the economy.

However, this concentration of power also raises concerns about potential abuse and manipulation of the financial system for political or economic purposes.


CBDCs aim to be inclusive and accessible to all citizens. Central banks aim to ensure that individuals without access to traditional banking services can participate in the digital economy. But, challenges related to technological infrastructure and digital literacy need to be addressed to ensure equitable access to CBDCs.

CBDCs vs. Cryptocurrencies

CBDCs and cryptocurrencies represent two distinct paradigms of digital currencies, each embodying unique characteristics and underlying principles. While both are digital in nature, their fundamental differences lie in their issuance, control, and underlying technology.

CBDCs are centralized digital currencies issued and regulated by central banks or monetary authorities. Their value is directly tied to the country's fiat currency, and they operate on permissioned blockchain networks, granting central authorities full control over the issuance and circulation of the currency.

Cryptocurrencies, on the other hand, are decentralized digital assets that operate on open, public blockchain networks, with no central authority governing their issuance or value.

The key distinction between the two lies in the degree of centralization and control. CBDCs are backed by the authority and stability of central banks, while cryptocurrencies derive their value from market demand and the trust placed in the underlying blockchain technology.

In the following section, we will go through the advantages and disadvantages of both types of digital assets. Since CBDCs haven’t been widely or effectively launched across the globe, most of these arguments are theoretical and untested. However, we will try to portray both sides of the coin!

Advantages of CBDCs over Cryptocurrencies


CBDCs offer a higher level of stability compared to most cryptocurrencies, which are known for their price volatility. Since CBDCs are tied to fiat currencies, their value is less susceptible to the speculative nature of the market.

This stability can provide a sense of security to users and businesses, particularly in times of economic uncertainty.

Regulatory Oversight

CBDCs operate within a regulated framework established by central banks and governments. Unlike crypto, as a part of a core centralized structure, CBDCs are covered under existing financial laws and regulations.

Additionally, it can provide users with legal recourse in case of disputes or fraudulent transactions.

Monetary Policy Tools

Central banks can use CBDCs as a tool to implement monetary policy effectively. By having direct control over the money supply, central banks can adjust interest rates, control inflation, and manage economic stability more efficiently.

Advantages of Cryptocurrencies over CBDCs


Cryptocurrencies operate on decentralized networks, eliminating the need for intermediaries like banks. This peer-to-peer nature enables borderless and frictionless transactions, reducing costs and enhancing financial inclusion, particularly for the unbanked and underbanked populations.


While not all cryptocurrencies offer complete anonymity, many provide a higher level of privacy compared to CBDCs. Users can conduct transactions without revealing personal information, providing a degree of financial privacy that may be preferred by individuals concerned about data breaches or surveillance.

Resistance to Government Control

Cryptocurrencies are resistant to direct government control or manipulation. The lack of a central authority ensures that policy decisions or political pressures cannot influence the value or supply of cryptocurrencies, contributing to a more transparent and trustless financial system.

Can CBDCs be used as a government weapon?

CBDCs have often been criticized for their redundant rule in an attempt to influence the fiat market. The majority of economists, financial experts, and TradFi users deem them to be unnecessary at best and invasive at worst.

A list of CBDC disadvantages and a single advantage
Credit: r/bitcoin, Reddit

There are several ways the government can leverage CBDCs as potential financial weapons.

The following are a few possible outcomes that CBDCs can bring:

Control and Surveillance

Increased Monitoring and Surveillance Capabilities of Governments

Central Bank Digital Currencies, being digital and centralized, grant governments unparalleled access to financial data. Every transaction conducted using CBDCs can be easily monitored, traced, and stored.

While proponents argue that this level of oversight can help combat illicit activities such as money laundering and terrorist financing, it raises significant concerns regarding the erosion of financial privacy.

Threats to Financial Privacy and Personal Freedoms

The extensive surveillance potential of CBDCs may expose individuals to the risk of unwarranted intrusions into their financial lives. Citizens could find themselves under scrutiny for legitimate financial activities, raising questions about personal freedoms and the right to financial privacy.

If not carefully managed, the widespread adoption of CBDCs could lead to a society where individuals feel apprehensive about engaging in financial transactions due to the constant monitoring of their economic activities.

For example, a Brazilian developer reverse-engineered the code of the country’s CBDC program which revealed the government’s power to freeze funds and adjust balances.

Centralization and Power

Reinforcing Centralized Control of Money by Governments

As governments introduce CBDCs as legal tender, they reinforce their centralized control over the issuance and regulation of currency. This concentration of power in the hands of central authorities might diminish the role of commercial banks and other financial intermediaries, potentially impacting the diversity and competitiveness of the financial sector.

Potential Abuse of Power and Manipulation of the Economy

The centralized nature of CBDCs raises concerns about the potential for governments to manipulate the economy and exert control over citizens' financial behavior.

Governments could resort to using CBDCs to implement policies that favor specific sectors or interest groups, creating an environment that lacks the checks and balances inherent in decentralized financial systems.

Competition and Suppression

CBDCs as a Tool to Suppress the Adoption of Cryptocurrencies

With the introduction of CBDCs, governments may perceive private cryptocurrencies as potential rivals, challenging their monopoly on currency issuance and control. To safeguard their authority, governments might employ measures to discourage or even outlaw the use of private cryptocurrencies. Such actions could stifle innovation and limit the opportunities for individuals to explore alternative financial systems.

Disadvantages Faced by Cryptocurrencies in Terms of Regulation and Acceptance

In contrast to CBDCs, private cryptocurrencies operate outside the direct control of governments, making them more challenging to regulate. This regulatory uncertainty could lead to increased scrutiny and restrictions on cryptocurrency exchanges and businesses, hindering the growth of the crypto industry.

Moreover, the lack of legal recognition for private cryptocurrencies might limit their acceptance as a legitimate means of payment, further hindering their widespread adoption.

Summing Up

The foremost concern lies in the increased control and surveillance capabilities of governments with CBDCs. While proponents argue that this level of oversight can combat illicit activities, it also poses threats to financial privacy and personal freedoms. The concentration of power in the hands of central authorities raises fears of potential abuse and manipulation of the economy, undermining the principles of a democratic and free market system.

As we move forward, it is crucial for stakeholders, governments, and the crypto community to engage in open dialogue and critical evaluation of CBDC initiatives. Striking a balance between innovation, privacy, and financial inclusion, while mitigating the risks of centralized control and surveillance, will be paramount for shaping the future of digital currencies.

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