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From Code to Consensus: Understanding How DAOs Work

By Romeo F.
10 Mar 2023
15 min read

If you have been in crypto for a while, you are certainly familiar with the term "DAO". You kind of know what it is but at the same time, it doesn’t really make a lot of sense to you.

Fret not, we are going to take a deep dive into the world of DAOs and explore everything you need to know.

DAO stands for Decentralized Autonomous Organization, and it's a new type of organization that's taking the blockchain world by storm.

In short, a DAO is an organization that operates entirely on the blockchain, with no central authority or hierarchy. Members of a DAO can vote on proposals and decisions, and the results of those votes are recorded on the blockchain for transparency and accountability.

So why are DAOs gaining so much popularity in the blockchain industry? Well, there are a few reasons. For one, they offer a new way of organizing and collaborating that's more transparent, democratic, and efficient than traditional models. By removing the need for a central authority or intermediary, DAOs can eliminate many of the costs and inefficiencies associated with traditional organizations.

But DAOs are also gaining popularity because they offer a new model for fundraising and investment. Through DAOs, individuals can pool their resources and invest in projects and ideas that they believe in, without needing to go through traditional intermediaries like banks or venture capitalists.

This has opened up a whole new world of possibilities for entrepreneurs and investors alike, and it's made DAOs one of the most exciting and promising areas of the blockchain industry.

In this article, we'll be exploring everything you need to know about DAOs, from how they work to their potential benefits and challenges. We'll take a closer look at some real-life examples of successful DAOs, as well as the potential risks and limitations that come with this new model of organizing. By the end of this article, you'll have a solid understanding of what DAOs are, how they work, and why they're shaping up to be one of the most important trends in the blockchain world.

Credit: CoinGeek

What exactly are DAOs?

Now that we've introduced DAOs and explained why they're so exciting, let's dive a bit deeper into what they actually are and how they work.

At their core, DAOs are decentralized organizations that operate entirely on the blockchain. They're made up of a group of individuals who come together to achieve a common goal or set of goals.

These individuals are often called members or stakeholders, and they can be anyone who holds a stake in the organization, whether that's through investment, the contribution of skills, or some other means.

Key features of DAOs

One of the key features of DAOs is their decentralization. Unlike traditional organizations, which have a central authority or hierarchy, DAOs are completely distributed and democratic. Members of a DAO can participate in decision-making processes, propose new ideas, and vote on important matters.

This creates a much more transparent and democratic system than traditional organizations, where decisions are often made behind closed doors by a select group of individuals.

Another important feature of DAOs is their autonomy. Because DAOs operate entirely on the blockchain, they're able to operate without the need for a central authority or intermediary.

This means that they can make decisions and take action without the need for approval from a centralized body, making them more efficient and streamlined.

To make all of this possible, DAOs typically rely on consensus mechanisms to ensure that decisions are made fairly and transparently.

This can take the form of voting systems or other consensus mechanisms, which allow all members of the DAO to have a say in important matters.

So how do DAOs benefit us?

For one, they offer increased transparency and accountability, as all decisions and actions are recorded on the blockchain for all members to see.

This makes it much easier to track the progress of a project or organization and to ensure that all members are on the same page.

DAOs can also be more efficient than traditional organizations, as they don't require the same level of bureaucracy or intermediaries. This means that decisions can be made more quickly, and resources can be allocated more efficiently.

Finally, DAOs are often seen as more secure than traditional organizations, as they rely on the security and transparency of the blockchain to ensure that all transactions and actions are recorded accurately and without the risk of tampering.

How do DAOs work?

As we discussed earlier, DAOs are run on smart contracts based on blockchain. So what are smart contracts?

Smart contracts are self-executing contracts that use blockchain technology to enforce the terms of the agreement. These contracts can be programmed to execute automatically when certain conditions are met, without the need for intermediaries such as lawyers or banks. By removing the need for intermediaries, smart contracts can save time and money while increasing the security of transactions.

How do you create a DAO?

When creating a DAO, one of the first steps is to define its governance structure. This involves determining the roles and responsibilities of its members and establishing the rules for decision-making. The governance structure can be set up in various ways, such as by using a board of directors or by creating committees for different functions.

So a DAO has several aspects—there is a core functioning body that is responsible to run an ecosystem. And then there are members that are steering the DAO toward a destination agreed upon through a consensus mechanism.

Here are your 10 steps to create a DAO:

1. Determine the Purpose and Goals of Your DAO: The first step in creating a DAO is to define the purpose and goals of the organization. What will it do? What is the mission of the DAO? How will it function?

2. Choose a Blockchain Platform: Next, you'll need to choose a blockchain platform to use as the foundation for your DAO. Ethereum is currently the most popular blockchain for creating DAOs, but there are other options available as well.

3. Write Smart Contracts: Smart contracts are the backbone of any DAO. They're self-executing computer programs that automatically execute the rules and regulations of the DAO. You'll need to write a set of smart contracts to govern the behavior of your DAO.

4. Define Governance Structure: The governance structure is the framework that outlines how decisions will be made within the DAO. This includes how proposals will be created, how voting will take place, and how disputes will be resolved.

5. Determine Membership Criteria: Decide who will be eligible to become a member of the DAO. This might be based on qualifications, skills, or experience.

6. Create a Token:Tokens are used to represent ownership and participation in the DAO. You'll need to create a token that can be distributed to members of the DAO.

7. Launch the DAO: Once you've completed all of the previous steps, you can launch the DAO. This involves deploying the smart contracts and making the DAO publicly accessible.

8. Invite Members to Join: Start inviting people to join your DAO. You can use social media, forums, and other channels to reach out to potential members.

9. Propose and Vote on Proposals: With the DAO up and running, members can begin proposing ideas and initiatives for the organization. Proposals are voted on by members, and those that receive enough votes are implemented.

10. Maintain the DAO: As the DAO grows and evolves, it will require ongoing maintenance and management. Make sure to stay on top of any updates, upgrades, or issues that arise.

Tools You Can Use to Run a Your DAO Seamlessly

Boardroom: Boardroom is a governance platform that allows DAOs to manage proposals, voting, and delegation. It provides a user-friendly interface for members to participate in decision-making, with features like quorum tracking and automatic execution of approved proposals.

Boardroom delivers push notifications
EPNS Collaborates With Boardroom to Deliver Push Notifications for Protocol and DAO Governance

Kleoverse: Kleoverse is a decentralized platform that helps DAO members manage their web3 portfolio and land new jobs. Kleoverse is one of the largest web3 professional communities with 60,000+ builders in the community, 15,000+ monthly active users, and 97,000+ minted Proof-of-Talent badges.

DeWork: DeWork is a platform that helps DAOs manage their operations, including finances, hiring, and project management. It provides tools for budgeting, payroll, and task tracking, as well as a marketplace for finding and hiring talent.


0xStation: 0xStation is a governance platform that helps DAOs manage their tokens and assets. It includes features like staking, liquidity provision, and token swaps, as well as analytics and reporting tools for tracking performance.

XDAO: XDAO is making it effortless for DAOS to deposit crypto assets, managing them through voting, selling DAO shares, and directly interacting with DeFi protocols. In essence, XDAO is a highly customizable tool that can be used for treasury management, multisig wallets, and investment platforms.

Create your DAO with XDAO

Voting in a DAO

Once the governance structure and membership criteria are established, members can then vote on proposals that affect the organization. Proposals can be submitted by any member and typically involve changes to the DAO's policies, new investment opportunities, or other operational decisions.

Voting can be done in various ways, such as through a simple majority vote or a more complex voting system that takes into account the preferences of different members. The results of the vote are then automatically enforced through the smart contract, which ensures that the decision is executed according to the rules of the DAO.

This process of decision-making allows for a more democratic and transparent way of managing organizations. The use of blockchain technology and smart contracts also provides a high level of security and reduces the risk of fraud or corruption. In addition, the use of DAOs can lead to more efficient and effective decision-making, as proposals can be voted on and executed quickly and without the need for intermediaries.

Overall, the technical aspects of DAOs provide a robust and effective way of managing decentralized organizations. By utilizing blockchain technology and smart contracts, DAOs offer a level of transparency, security, and efficiency that is difficult to achieve with traditional organizations.

Examples of successful DAOs

In this section, we'll look at some real-life examples of DAOs that have gained significant traction in the blockchain industry. These DAOs have demonstrated the potential of decentralized autonomous organizations in various applications.


CurveDAO is a decentralized autonomous organization that governs the Curve protocol, which is an automated market maker (AMM) that enables users to trade stablecoins with low fees and slippage. The protocol is built on the Ethereum blockchain, and its governance token is CRV. The DAO is responsible for making decisions about the protocol's development, such as proposing and voting on changes to the smart contracts or adjusting the fees.

CurveDAO is unique in that instead of using a one-token-one-vote structure, it deploys a weighted average model based on the users’ lock-in period.


Uniswap is another decentralized autonomous organization that governs a popular decentralized exchange (DEX) built on Ethereum. The protocol uses an automated market maker (AMM) system to allow users to trade tokens without the need for an order book or centralized authority. Uniswap's governance token is UNI.

The Uniswap DAO has over 300,000 members who hold UNI tokens and can vote on proposals. Members can propose changes to the protocol, such as adding new tokens or adjusting the fee structure, and these proposals are voted on by the members.


LidoDAO is a decentralized autonomous organization that governs the Lido protocol, which is a liquid staking solution for Ethereum 2.0. The protocol allows users to stake their ETH and receive a tokenized version of their stake (called stETH), which they can then use to participate in DeFi applications without waiting for the ETH 2.0 staking period to end. Lido's governance token is LDO.

LidoDAO has seen significant growth and adoption since its launch in 2020, with more than $8 billion worth of assets now staked on the Lido protocol. The DAO has faced challenges such as high gas fees and security vulnerabilities, but it has been successful in improving the protocol and expanding its offerings to other blockchains such as Solana.

Potential challenges and limitations of DAOs

Alright, so now that we've talked about the benefits and successes of DAOs, let's take a step back and consider some of the potential challenges and limitations they may face.

Security Issues

One concern is that DAOs can be vulnerable to security issues, such as hacks or bugs in the smart contracts that underpin them. Because DAOs are decentralized and autonomous, there is no central authority to step in and correct any issues that may arise. This means that it's critical for developers to build robust security measures into the DAO's design and for members to remain vigilant in detecting and addressing any vulnerabilities that may emerge.

Here are a few risks DAOs face:

Vulnerabilities in smart contracts: Smart contracts are a critical component of DAOs, as they define the rules and conditions for how the organization operates. If a smart contract is not properly designed or audited, it may contain vulnerabilities that could be exploited by attackers.
Centralization of decision-making: Despite their name, DAOs are not completely autonomous. Members still need to come to a consensus on decisions and proposals, and this can lead to centralization and control by a small group of members.
Sybil attacks: In a Sybil attack, an attacker creates multiple fake identities to gain control of a network. In the context of a DAO, this could allow an attacker to manipulate the voting process and control the outcome of proposals.
DAOs are aware of these risks and are taking steps to mitigate them. Some of the ways in which DAOs are enhancing their security include:

Conducting audits: DAOs are increasingly turning to independent auditors to review their smart contracts and identify any vulnerabilities.
Implementing multi-sig wallets: Multi-sig wallets require multiple parties to sign off on a transaction, making it more difficult for any single member to misuse the organization's funds.
Token-based voting systems: DAOs are experimenting with token-based voting systems that assign voting power based on the number of tokens a member holds. This helps prevent Sybil attacks and ensures that members with a vested interest in the organization have a greater say in decision-making.

Governance Issues

Another potential challenge for DAOs is governance issues. Because decisions are made through consensus mechanisms, it can be difficult to ensure that all members are aligned on a particular course of action.

There's also the risk of a small group of members dominating decision-making processes or even manipulating the DAO for their own gain. This highlights the importance of developing a clear governance structure and ensuring that all members have equal say in decision-making processes.

Legal Issues

Looking at the legal side, the DAOs don’t remotely resemble any existing corporate structure that we have had resulting in a myriad of legal and regulatory challenges. As they become more prevalent and powerful, governments are seeking to regulate or even ban them outright.

We are seeing some favorable developments in the legal landscape like in Utah, US, where The Utah State Legislature passed Act HB 357, the Utah Decentralized Autonomous Organizations Act (Utah DAO Act).

It basically legalizes DAO and DAO-related operations by creating new laws and regulations. These new “LLDs” will come to effect in 2024.

The Republic of the Marshall Islands also converted the DAO Act 2022 into law last year.

It will be critical for the DAO community to work with policymakers and legal experts to ensure that regulations strike the right balance between protecting investors and supporting innovation and progress in the industry.

Future prospects for DAOs

Now that we've covered the basics of DAOs, let's take a look at their potential for the future. DAOs have the potential to revolutionize traditional business models by creating new forms of collaborative organizations that are more transparent, efficient, and democratic.

One of the most exciting things about DAOs is their ability to create decentralized communities that can work together toward a common goal. They offer a way to pool resources and knowledge and to make collective decisions in a transparent and democratic way.

We're already seeing some interesting trends and developments in the DAO space. For example, there are DAOs that focus on everything from art and music to real estate and insurance. And as blockchain technology continues to evolve, we can expect to see even more innovative use cases for DAOs.

In addition, we're also seeing the emergence of DAO-to-DAO collaborations, where multiple DAOs work together to achieve a common goal. DAOs have often come together for joint venture purposes, (Gnosis/DX DAO), Community Swap (Melon), or to fund a public good (Gitcoin, Commons Stack). This has the potential to create even more powerful and effective decentralized communities.

Of course, there are still some challenges and limitations to be overcome. As we mentioned earlier, security vulnerabilities and governance issues are still a concern. And as the regulatory landscape continues to evolve, we may see more legal challenges for DAOs.

But overall, the potential for DAOs to create new forms of collaboration and innovation is incredibly exciting. As blockchain technology continues to evolve, we can expect to see even more innovative use cases for DAOs, and more opportunities for decentralized communities to come together and create something truly amazing.

Summing Up

DAOs represent an exciting development in the blockchain industry and have the potential to bring about significant changes in the way organizations operate. We encourage you to stay informed and keep an eye on this space as it continues to evolve.

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